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The Domain Name System (DNS)

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Alex
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The Domain Name System (DNS)

Post by Alex on Sat 12 Jan 2013, 12:17 pm

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates domain names meaningful for users to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide. By providing a worldwide, distributed keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of the Internet.

An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, the domain name www.example.com translates to the addresses 192.0.43.10 (IPv4) and 2620:0:2d0:200::10 (IPv6). Unlike a phone book, the DNS can be quickly updated, allowing a service's location on the network to change without affecting the end users, who continue to use the same host name. Users take advantage of this when they recite meaningful Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and e-mail addresses without having to know how the computer actually locates the services.

The Domain Name System distributes the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to IP addresses by designating authoritative name servers for each domain. Authoritative name servers are assigned to be responsible for their particular domains, and in turn can assign other authoritative name servers for their sub-domains. This mechanism has made the DNS distributed and fault tolerant and has helped avoid the need for a single central register to be continually consulted and updated. Additionally, the responsibility for maintaining and updating the master record for the domains is spread among many domain name registrars, who compete for the end-user's, domain-owner's, business. Domains can be moved from registrar to registrar at any time.

The Domain Name System also specifies the technical functionality of this database service. It defines the DNS protocol, a detailed specification of the data structures and communication exchanges used in DNS, as part of the Internet Protocol Suite.

The Internet maintains two principal namespaces, the domain name hierarchy and the Internet Protocol (IP) address spaces. The Domain Name System maintains the domain name hierarchy and provides translation services between it and the address spaces. Internet name servers and a communication protocol implement the Domain Name System. A DNS name server is a server that stores the DNS records for a domain name, such as address (A) records, name server (NS) records, and mail exchanger (MX) records (see also list of DNS record types); a DNS name server responds with answers to queries against its database.

More details at: Wikipedia


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Re: The Domain Name System (DNS)

Post by Tel on Sun 07 Apr 2013, 9:31 pm

This is a nice overview for beginners: DNS - What It Is and What It Does
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Re: The Domain Name System (DNS)

Post by Toptel on Sun 07 Apr 2013, 10:07 pm

One of the most important jobs performed by name servers is the storage of name data. Since the authority for registering names is distributed across the internetwork using DNS, the database of name information is likewise distributed. An authoritative server is responsible for storing and managing all the information for the zones of authority it is assigned.
Each DNS server is, in essence, a type of database server. The database contains many kinds of information about the subdomains and individual devices within the domain or zone for which the server is responsible.
The entire point of DNS is to allow humans to work with names and computers to work with numbers!
This is working for domain names on the internet, but so far not for phone numbers in the cellular phone network. We are waiting for a big company that understands this and starts to use .tel.

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